Recently, Light Reading, released a good whitepaper about EPC. It focus about pre-integrated platforms to build S-GW, P-GW, SAE-GW. It has some marketing stuff, graphs etc. It explained the imporatance about pre-integarated, pre-optimized EPC solution. You may like to have a look.
OK, then, enjoy the upcoming Christmas vacation.
Last article, I started a series on LTE NAS. I wrote some basics about NAS and its root to 3G. I focused more on EMM. This article is about ECM. ECM is used to establish connection. The connection is established between UE and MME either for session management or for SMS transfer. Let’s start with ECM specific procedure named.
So, what is paging? Yes it is also memory management technique, that we learnt in computer science. However in cellular wireless context paging is different. If someone dial your mobile number, your mobile start ringing. How it happens? First, network start paging procedure to intimate mobile about incoming call. Then mobile and network performs security procedures, radio resource allocation and finally it starts ringing. The call can be CS or PS and so paging also. We can foresee that initial LTE network will co-exist with 3G or even 2G network. Voice call will not move to PS VoIP over night. If valid NAS context exist at MME, LTE has “CS Service notification” ECM specific procedure use for CS paging. In the absence of NAS context, “Paging” ECM specific procedure is used establish NAS for incoming CS or PS call. NAS context consists of security parameters between UE and MME for NAS message exchanges. Generally LTE network address the UE with its S-TMSI in “Paging” procedure. However if MME restart or somehow, MME lost S-TMSI of UE, then it uses IMSI. It is rare case, abnormal condition and used to recover the error.
UE initiates “Service Request” ECM specific procedure, in response to paging. As part of this ECM specific procedure, the network may initiate optional common procedure(s): (1) Authentication and/or (2) Security Mode Control. We saw in last article, that specific procedures are made up of zero or more common procedure(s). The successful Service Request procedure result into ECM connected (EMM connected) state. NAS ECM has one more variant for Service Request procedure, that is Extended Service Request. It is used for CS fallback for voice call and handoff with non-3GPP networks. Non-3GPP networks are CDMA network, EVDO (HRPD) network, WiMAX network, etc.
The last NAS ECM specific procedure is “Transport of NAS”. It is used for SMS.
Paging always initiated by network. Detach and “Transport of NAS” procedures can be invoked by either network or UE. All other ECM and EMM NAS procedures are UE initiated. Service Request ECM specific procedure and all EMM specific procedures (i.e. Attach, Detach and TAU) are starting Initial NAS messages. NAS context may not present during this procedure. So the first message is not encrypted. These procedures may invoke other common EMM procedure for security purpose.
One can consider ECM as separate category of NAS procedure, or they are just part of EMM. Let me recap. So far we have seen EMM and ECM specific NAS procedure. Next is ESM. Here are various procedures that we cover in a tree format. Generally each procedure contains a pair of message exchange. Request and Response. A message contains IE.
EMM Elementary procedure.
- EMM specific procedure
- Combined Attach
- Combined Detach
- Normal TAU
- Periodic TAU.
- ECM specific procedure
- Service Request
- Service Request
- Extended Service Request
- With S-TMSI
- With IMSI
- CS Service Notification
- Transport of NAS
- Service Request
So here let me focus on NAS signally aspects of LTE. It is highly preferable to have some prior knowledge about any wireless technology : 2G, 3G or 4G. This LTE-NAS series will provide some idea about LTE basic procedures and signaling message exchanges. They are called NAS messages. One can always refer 3GPP standard to learn NAS. But here I wrote it differently, in my own wordings, at my blog 'Express YourSelf !' Enjoy it and let me know your feedback.
Even UMTS has NAS. NAS messages are for (1) Mobility (2) Session Management and (3) Security. Security has two aspects: (1)integrity and (2)ciphering. Today’s article is about EMM. EMM includes determining UE's location, user's authentication, confidentiality, and connection management. Procedure is a group of NAS messages exchange with specific purpose. There are two kinds of EMM elementary procedures. (1) Common procedures and (2) specific procedures.
Let’s see specific procedures, (1)Attach, (2)Detach and (3) TAU are EMM’s specific procedures. As the name suggest, UE invokes attach procedure to attach to LTE network and to detach from LTE network, the detach procedure. These procedures are invoked when UE is powered ON (attach) or OFF (detach). Also when UE enters to LTE coverage area (attach) or leave LTE coverage area (detach). Simple to understand. Is not it? Generally UE and network both are backward compatible. So UE may perform combined attach/detach for (1) new LTE network and (2) legacy GPRS/UMTS network. To support such combine procedure is optional. Normal attach and combined attach are differ only by presence of few optional IEs. There are three kinds of UEs. PS only mode UE works only with EPS (EPS is synonymous for LTE). These UEs are not mobile handsets but they are USB dongle or PC card. They never perform combined procedure. “CS/PS mode 1 UE” and “CS/PS mode 2 UE” are dual mode. If UE is under coverage of both LTE and legacy GPRS/UMTS, then Mode 1 UE prefers non-EPS (GPRS/UMTS) and mode 2 prefers EPS(LTE) service. However, they can attach to both networks, (1) EPS network and (2) non-EPS network.
What is TAU? TA is formed by coverage are of a group of cell sites (eNBs). LA in 2G GSM, RA in GPRS. eNB broadcasts TAI. When the moving UE change its TA, it informs the network about its new TA or TA list with “normal TAU procedure”. Even if UE is stationary, it periodically reports its TA with “periodic TAU procedure”. Our 2G GSM MS perform LAU at about every 3 hours. GPRS MS perform RAU at about every 50 to 55 minutes. TAU can also be combined TAU, to inform legacy GPRS/UMTS network, with help of eUTRAN LTE infrastructure. So if network supports combine procedures, then dual mode UEs can perform combine procedure. The combined procedures save UE’s battery power and network’s scare radio resources. :)
After knowing the purpose of EMM procedure, let’s have closer look to them. The EMM Specific procedures in turn may optionally invoke common procedures. For example, EMM specific procedure named Attach may invoke other EMM common procedure(s) like (1)GUTI relocation, (2)Authentication, (3)Security Mode control, (4)Identification, (5)EMM Information and (6)ESM Information. They are optional. The common procedures and specific procedures, both are EMM elementary procedure. Let me describe this concept with a class diagram !!
Yes, I know, we use UML class diagram for design a software module. Here I have used just to make the point clear. It is not for design of NAS module neither at UE nor at MME.
Have you noticed? I used italic fonts in diagram to indicate abstract class They are still category only, not any concrete procedure. Here all EMM Specific procedures and few ECM specific procedures may optionally invoke EMM common procedure(s). So these specific procedures are “whole”, common procedure(s) are “part” and this is aggregation relationship. Also, if you observe carefully the class diagram looks like Composite design pattern.
RRC carries NAS messages. In UMTS, RRC is terminating at RNC. LTE network, does not have RNC so RRC is terminating at eNB. NAS terminates at MME. NAS messages are between UE and MME. RRC and NAS both provides data integrity. Ciphering is mandatory for RRC, but optional for NAS. NAS can have at least two FSMs for (1) ESM FSM and (2) EMM FSM. EMM FSM has seven states. (1) EMM Null, (2) EMM DeRegistered, (3) EMM DeRegistered initiated, (4) EMM Registered, (5) EMM Registered initiated, (6) EMM TAU initiated, (7) EMM Service Request initiated. Have you noticed? Out of these seven states, most of them are transient states. EMM FSM has major two states only. EMM DeRegistered and EMM Registered. They are correspond to UE is power OFF and UE power ON (with valid subscription :-) ) respectively. ECM can have its FSM. For EMM Registered state, ECM FSM has two states. (1) ECM idle and (2) ECM connected. They are also known as EMM Idle and EMM Connected respectively.
Subsequent articles will cover more details about ECM, ESM and security etc...
At every stage of our life, we are making choice. Choice of to do something or not. Choice of investing our life.
Some of our relatives and friends support it and rests of them oppose our decision. Always ask yourself. “Do I choose my dream, my ambition and make choice accordingly? OR Do I do what is good/right/appropriate and later on I may regret for my choice?” At every stage of life, we have this dilemma. Our culture, parents, works, in-laws, spouse, society…the whole system defines a set of appropriate actions. Our choice demands determination. We have to make choice without negating that system and without surrendering our own identity. Only make sure to maintain the basic values.
We have to pay price for the choice that we make. Each choice we make is providing us a new world of opportunities and experiences. We take small steps towards goal. Many such small steps give a sense of direction. It is beginning of adventure. Everyday when we awake, our choice gives a different looks to life. It is a departure from yesterday.
We contribute to system for getting meaning of life….. further meaning of life…..and for having a sense of fulfillment. At the same time we are also part of system! Life is much more than our work/job/occupation. Life has wider aspects like yourself, family, children. Does respect for elders mean scarification of our own dreams/ambition/choice?
Whenever you face dilemma, just remember this story.
Story always begins with…?
Yes….“once upon a time”
Once upon a time……long long time back yet yesterday only….far far from here yet nearby only….there was a boy. At the stage of adulthood he started making decision about his life…..His parents provides guidance, sometimes agree, sometimes disagree with his decision….Once he left for roaming…to find out his own world…. There was a highway. Parents/friends advised him to follow the highway. As everyone were following it. One more option the boy discovered. It was a not highway. It was not even a way….It was a kind of way passing through forest…The boy choose that way. He made his own way from all the obstacles of forest. He became successful. His success only credited to his choice to choose a difficult way.
This content has been taken from speech by Ms. Indira Parikh at convocation of a Management Diploma course by AMA (Ahmedbad Management Association). Year 2000. The author has put great effort into writing this speech as accurately he could. However the author is not liable of any misinterpretation or incorrectness of the content. This speech is not for support or for publicity of any true or false believes, any school of thought and any particular group of people.
Have you recently invested in house property?
Are you bored with All those traditional *.KRIPA name. Here is a range of collections for home name. Only for you.
** indicates that they are my favorite names.
Home and Owner
Renbaseraa - Mahavir Tyagi
Nid - Nikhil J Kothari = NJK (DDIT - EC)
Vraj - Vipul A. Shah = VAS (DDIT - IC)
Madhuli - Harshad Maheta
Tahuko - Gunvat Shah
Maitri - VishanuPrashad trivedi
Setu - Umashankar Joshi
**Haa….sh - Vinodini Nilakanth
Nisarg - Jayendra Trivedi (Bhavanagar)
Sudaamaa - Chimanlal J Shah
Asht Laxami _- Gandhinagar our flat = room
**Samanu - Sanjita
Nuraani - Mitahour Surjakaradi My favorite construction
Rhythm - Nishit Pandya (Jamnagar)
Pratixa - Amitabh Bachchan
Saujany - Bhavanagar
Dreams Unlimited - ShahrukhKhan’s movie production company
Saakaar - Ahmedabad Building
**Atira - Ahmedabad Organization
Khading - Ramesh Parekh’s book
Not Names :)
Kuruxetra - For always fighting couple
Kahani ghar ghar ki
Customized Special name for me
I am back after my Diwali vacation. Last year, I shared my first poem related to Diwali, New year wishes. Nena Pidheya Modhala Kavana? and also Rangoli This time yes, few Rangolis I will share. However this post is not about that
I visited Bhagawat Vidyapith at Ahmedabad. Let me share a nice picture, from entrance of Bhagawat Vidyapith. Here is a translation for international readers. This poster describe important qualities that one should cultivate in life. These qualities, practices are like our parents, siblings, friends and our real asset. So I gave title to this article Family.
Self dependency (doing our own work), practice (study), contentment, trust, detachment, religion (duty) are as important as our father. Mother: Goddess Sarswati (goddess of knowledge, wisdom and music), Goddess Gaayatri (Saavitri), cleanliness, service and surrender. Discrimination, self control, rules, convincing and discipline (punishment) are like our brothers. Who are our true friends? The scriptures, good company (company of an enlighten person), good qualities, intention to do good work, hard work and physical exercise. With such family members one can earn the true assets like: SAADHANA (regular spiritual practice), good intention, good intelligence, TITIKSHA (burning desire with patience), peace, devotion, faith and forgiveness.
So I pray for you all of the above on this festival of light (Diwali). All the best.
I attended a 3 days event FOSS-IN 2006. http://foss.in/2006/ One of the sessions was on about digital photography where the speaker Klayan shared his experience, gave some tips and suggested some steps to improve the photograph. Klayn Varma is a wild life photographer. His work can be seen at http://kalyanvarma.net We got year 2007 desktop calendar, which contains excellent wild life photographs taken by him.
He suggested some open source tool Gimp, f-spot, g-thumb etc. He did live demonstration, he took our audience photograph, transfer to PC. He suggested to take the photo in raw format. Never take in auto format. Because, with auto format if camera does some adjustment then it can not be revert back. Gimp has some plug-ins to read row format files. Alas, the entry level digital camera model does not support raw format. Raw format means how the camera sees without any correction or optimization. When we saw on PC. The photo was very ugly. He explained the steps to make it better.
- Optimize the brightness. He demonstrated photos with different exposure and advised that in case of over exposed, some portion is saturated and we loose data. It is always better to underexpose and then increase the brightness.
- Adjust the saturation.
- Adjust the white balance.
- Adjust the contrast.
- Now adjust color level. Optimize the temperature. The Red and Blue color balance is called temperature.
- Optimize the green color.
- Last do the sharpening of image if required. The sharpening number should be between 20 to 30 (may be in the Gimp tool).
- Save the image as JPEG with compression ratio 96%. The default may be 75%, where we loose some data in the image. The default setting for Nikon camera is 95% He demonstrated that with from 96 to 95% the reduction in file size is very less. From 97 to 96%, the significant file size decrease without much impact on quality of photographs. So thus with trail and error he found this magic number 96%
- He reminded us that aspect ratio for camera is 2:3 Monitor is 3:4 we should keep this thing in mind. One person added for movie it is 16:9
- While cropping the image, always maintain this 3:2 golden ratio.
- If the original photograph has poor focus, and we want to improve the sharpness, off course we can use tools. However it will increase noise in picture. He suggested one better way. Increase the picture size by several % and then decrease it to its original size with help of photoshop. The decrease size algorithm will try to detect the edge, that will improve the sharpness.
- jhead is a command line tool, used to see the meta data of the photographs. One should save the meta data along with photograph.
- We have heard about SLR cameras. He suggested one more better lense cost around 5000, it is '50mm Aperture F 1.8 prime lense'.
- He also highlighted some issues with proprietary file format and support from the vendor for old cameras.
- Yes we do all kind of color adjustment, however when we see the print, the colors are different!!. We did adjustment for RGB, printer works on CMYK. We need to know and apply the printer's color profile, also know as ICC profile. People also goes upto the extent of matching the paper's white color, ink's color etc. He himself bagged to G.K.Wale for ICC profile of the printer, but... :(
At last we had interactive question answer session. We collected his e-mail ID firstname.lastname@example.org
One person from the audience was from analog photography world. He added some relevant information, like 'dourge and burnt' tool at Gimp, here this phrase originally came from analog photography and what does it mean in the roll development process. Klyan also confesses that yes, he do not know much about analog photography. He himself was carrying big size of cameras. He was explaining its feature, outside of the conference hall. Overall it was quite interactive, informative and useful session.
You can download the slides at : https://foss.in/2006/cfp/speakers/talkdetailspub.php?talkid=58
So today, our blog "Express YourSelf!" completed one year successfully. :) It could survive with new articles consistently. Yes, I am not frequently blogging. It is not daily or weekly, may be fortnightly. Let's recall this First Post on my blog. As the name suggests, I started this blog, to express myself.
And I do confine this blog to any specific topics or theme. It has its pros and corns. It is difficult to get advertise, as this blog is about everything. It is easy to attract traffic from Google. As this blog appears in search result for many keyword. Few articles like FOSS.in 2008, Securing Wireless Cellular System and articles with Art of Living labels are refereed by Google search engine. 362 hits came via Google search engine. An evening with a legendary Yoga Guru Dr B K S Iyenger This article also got enough publicity through word of mouth and social media. Let's look at few more statistics. 27 articles. 1891 hits in a year is 158 hits per month. Recently it increase to 200+ visitors. Average time on site: 2 Min. Visitors from 65 countries, 445 cities. I am leaving in a small global village :)
Writing a blog is a new trend nowadays. So me too.... At the end one year, I can see, many articles about event reports. Yes, I used to write about musical concert to my friends. Later on, I started uploading them at my homepage. Now on blog. Few friends, inspired me to write. Thomas L. Friedman inspired me with his book The World Is Flat. Now, there is not traditional model of journalist, editor, media. An individual can cover any event OR take celebrities' interviews, with his/her mobile, post it at blog and form a community around it.
In addition to event report, I wrote about my poems, my technical learning, my thoughts on science and spirituality, festivals, music, culture, traditions, Google gadgets, book review etc. Much more to come. I am keep modifying this blog's design. On my Birthday, I kept sideshow for B'day pictures. However I avoided sharing about my birthday gifts. I received three unique special gifts, this year on my birthday.
So let me address your feedback. I did it with Aap Aur Ham - 1 After that, not much comments. One day workhard read many of my articles and my friends' blog also. Sudhir, workhard and Hiral appreciated Concave Mirror. Thanks. It is similar to my earlier article Music of Mind. I covered Hans-Peter Dürr's speech at We Experience More than We can Grasp post. Abhay Suggested it to post at Yes+, while and Parth and Hiral discuss further on the topic.
Suresh and Hiral appreciated my poem Ashaadhsya Prathame Divase Thanks. I wrote few tiny articles with just a photograph. Best from the waste and Shiva = Shhhhhhhhhhhhhh…. waaahhh! were such articles. Hiral and Himanshu both liked that butterfly picture from Forum Shopping mall. I wrote about IPSec. It is about security protocols. Technical, datacom and telecommunication. Santosh appreciated but, few readers felt it is over simplified. Well, I am planning one more article on LTE. I will make sure to make it complex :)
So far, you all readers have encouraged me. Thanks to all. Now, let this blog enter to second phase. Now I will make sure, more articles, frequent articles, useful and diversify content. Generally blog provides a platform to discuss some issue/topic and collaborate. I wish to collaborate for writing. I am inviting readers to be author or co-author for this blog. I will also write on other's blog. You will see join ventures very soon.
So keep reading this blog, keep commenting and off course, keep smiling. :)
|Good Morning, Have a good day, DIN HUVA Begin and Keep Smiling|
Let's laugh at some bitter realities of life.....EVU CHHE EM NE? (Oh it is so!! is it?)
Also Let's discriminate between important and trivial matters SUPADU
I have Small Small Dreams...Do u want to know about them??? DIL HAI CHOTA
SA...CHOTI SI AASHA
Let these dreams remain dreams only. Dreams are always sweet if they remain as dreams.
Faith + Eagerness + Patience = SHABARI (A famous character of RAMAYANA)
Just imagine for a while, if God sitting at temple, can speak....Then what he will say?
GOVINDE MAANDI GOTHADI!!!
CHITKAR !! and Sigma- Our school life, sorry sorry, our college life !! Listen MAADI !!
YAADEN Unforgettable College Life memories of our class IC-98 DDIT
A Rose, Mera Unase Yahee Sawaal Hai..... and Heart Protocol -- Valentine Day Specials
BATEKU CHHOLATI PRIYA - A humorous note. Description of cooking.
Gulab Zal Nu Pani!!! Too much redundancy...A tribute to R.T. Anjaanaa Andekhaa Koi
AB... HAVE...and Move Aah Se Aahaa Tak- Hindi Poems. I recited them at Hindi Kavi
SAMELAN. Watch it.
BreathLess by Shankar Mahaadevan Watch it !!
Just visit My Poems blog for all my poems
Bellur Krishnamachar Sundararaja Iyengar popularly known as Yogacharya B. K. S. Iyengar visited
On Teacher’s Day, 5th Sept, in a function organized at
He delivered his speech with standing posture. His speech was scheduled at the end of the function. It was quite late and some people from audience had left. He politely conveyed sorry and he skipped some of the points due to lack of time. He talked in English for the benefits of foreigners. He also acknowledged and appreciated that the foreigners had listened and ‘tolerated’ so far to us, as our programme was in regional Kannada language.
Patanjali Yoga Sutras are divided into 4 chapters or books (Sanskrit pada), containing in all 196 aphorisms.
- Samadhi Pada (51 sutras)
- Sadhana Pada (55 sutras) – means to achieve Yoga
- Vibhuti Pada (56 sutras) – the power that the yogi comes across in his quest
- Kaivalya Pada (34 sutras) – the absolution
"Yogaś chitta-vritti-nirodhaḥ - Yoga is the restraint of mental modifications. Chitta (the mind) is like ocean. It is deep, steady and silent. However on the surface it has waves. The mind is attached with the gross body with five senses. These senses are outer side. So chitta has mental modifications or distortions. We need to direct these senses towards inside. There is something inside us, that is so powerful, wonderful - our consciousness, our spirit, Atma.” (Footnote 1)
"As per Patanajali, the mind has five types of distortions/modifications which create pleasure or pain. PRAMAN (proof), VIPARYAY (wrong logic), VIKLPA (Imagining), NINDRA (sleep) and SMIRTI (memory). However, I would like to say memory is not separate. It is combination of all the above four. Patanjali is suggesting two methods to overcome these distortions - ABHYASA and VAIRAGYA. ABHYASA is constant and determined practice. The practice of long duration, uninterrupted, with full love and devotion is essential for strong foundation. This will make the mind calm and tranquil.” (Footnote 2)
Dr. Iyengar continued, “VAIRAGYA is non-attachment or freedom from desires. VAIRAGYA is not renunciation. Many times VAIRAGYA is wrongly interpreted as renunciation. These two methods are like support. Just now you saw how Arunji demonstrated Yogasana with support of chair. Same way with this two supports we can overcome five (or four) modifications/distortions of mind.
ABHYASA also means awareness. Awareness about our body, breath. When you read
Avidya (ignorance), Asmita (the feeling of individuality which limits a person and distinguishes him from a group), Raga (attachment or passion), Dvesa (aversion) and Abhinivesa (the instinctive clinging to worldly life) (Footnote 3) are the causes which create Klesa - pain.
He explained different distractions and obstacles which hinder the aspirant’s practice of Yoga. These are Vyadhi (sickness), Styana (languor), Samsaya (doubt), Pramada ( insensibility), Alasya (laziness), Avirati (sensuality), Bhranti Darsana (illusion), Alabdha Bhumikatva (failure to concentrante) and Anavasthitattva (instability)
Along with this he also explained fourfold remedies that Patanjali has offered to overcome the obstacles. These are Maitri (friendliness), Karuna (compassion), Mudita (delight), Upeksa (disregard). He explained this with very simple example - “In this journey of spiritual path, you may face some obstacles, for example, your body may feel pain at the beginning when you start practicing Yogasana. Some people may get stuck at this body aspect of Yoga. You need to find out whether this pain can be overcome by practice or not. If yes, you continue to practice. If no, you need to be indifferent to it. Be aware about that pain, accept that pain and raise yourself above it. This Maitri and Upeksa will lead you to happiness. Be Happy. Remain happy. Yoga is not about merely theory for the scholar people. It is about practice, consistent practice. Some intellect people may get stuck at the logic, theory. You need to go beyond that also.”
He continued with few more warnings for all Sadhakas (seekers) about such obstacles. “Prior to applying these two tools namely Abhyasa and Vairagya, we need devotion, faith in God (Ishwara Pranidhana). It is the first step for spiritual journey. Thus Patanjali’s Yoga Sutra, looks like it talks about knowledge (GYAN YOGA). However it covers all the Yoga - Devotion (BHAKTI YOGA), Action (KARMA YOGA), and RAJ YOGA.” He also mentioned about different types of SAMAADHIs and he explained all of them.
Dr. B.K.S. Iyengar talked about Guru (the master). "Yes we all have Guru Parmpara (Guru, then Guru's Guru, Guru's Guru's Guru and so on). When we track it backwards, the first Guru is nothing but sound of OM. OMKARA, PRANAV sound. A+OO+M. Even Patanjali says, ’I am that first Guru and I am the God’...."
Then he explains the three aspects. "
"In fact, we need to regroup some of the SLOKAs (SUTRAs) in Patanjali Yoga Sutra, for the benefits of novices. For example:
Maitri, Karuna, Muditopekshaanaam....
Here Maharshi Patanjali talks about four attitudes: Friendship, mercy (compassion), gladness, indifference and then he talks about Pranayama (breathing exercise). Here also Patanajali is talking about eight limbs of Astang Yoga only. Here Maitri Friendship, Karuna Compassion etc are corresponding to Yama and Niyama limbs of Astang Yoga. And remaining limbs follows in the same sutra.....
He suggested some sequence, about what portion (how many sutras) from which chapter one should read and after that other sutras from other chapter and so on....so that it will make more sense. "I am working on a book about Patanjali Yoga Sutra. There I have regrouped some sutras or content." Later on I found on Wikipedia, that he has written one book : Iyengar, B.K.S. (1993, 2002). Light on the Yoga Sūtras of Patañjali. Hammersmith,
He remembered his Guru. "On those days, Yoga was not popular. So they faced a difficult time and financial trouble. Today, I am proud of myself that I have made Yoga as means to earn livelihood for many people."
He concluded that "the complete programme consists of three BHRAMAs. First was classical music that was SHABDA BHRMA, second this knowledge session - GYAN BHRMA. Next you all are welcome for dinner. It is ANNA BHRMA"
Now let me provide some context about the event. It was silver jubilee function of Prashant Yogashraya, Bangalore. Dr B K S Iyenger had specially come from Pune to bless the occasion. The institute invited all the students and alumni from across the globe. This function was open to public and I am thankful to Dr. Sejal Shah for informing me about it and inviting for it. She is a Yoga teacher. The programme began at with wonderful classical-instrumental music. Yoga teacher Arunji, Director, Prashant Yogashraya gave superb demonstration of different Yogasana sequence (postures) in standing position with props like chairs, blankets and belt. Doing asana with the support of different props and in certain sequence are the unique features of Iyenger Yoga. Arunji informed that, "We can perform about 80 Yogasana (postures) with such supports. Supports make it easy and still we get benefits of those Asanas." He is very popular among the students may be due to his sense of humor. We saw journey of 25 years of Prashant Yogashraya, with a short video clip. We saw many testimonials including Mr. Nandan Nilekani and his wife, Mrs Rohini Nilekani. Everyone wished all the best for Prashannt Yogashraya. We all welcomed Dr. B K S Iyengar with candles. Ms. Shreya as an anchor naturally announced all formalities. Mrs Srimatha Arun (Co-founder, Prashant Yogashraya) gave a very touching vote of thanks.
Later on, Dr. Sejal informed me some key takeaway points from previous session. Again this is not verbatim. On 4th Sept, Dr. B.K.S. Iyengar inaugurated Yoga Nikaya. Shri Mouli Raman (Co-founder and CTO, OnMobile Global Ltd.) - a student of Arun Sir - built this beautiful and sacred place - YOGA NIKAYA to promote Yoga and health. Dr. B.K.S Iyenger while inaugurating Yoga Nikaya, emphasized and appealed to all the people to make use of this place to its full potential. This place is at Hosur, boundary of
Dr. Iyengar delivered another lecture at Prashant Yogashraya. He stressed on being very watchful while performing Yogasana. “Yogasana is not just physical exercise similar to work out at gym. One should not perform Yogasana mechanically. You need to be watchful, attentive and alert when doing asana. Be aware and involved. Your awareness should pervade in your entire body including tips of your fingers and toes. This will help you to correct yourself if you observe that you are doing something wrong. This correction is very important. Make sure, your left and right hands are aligned when you raise them both. Make sure, all center points of body remains in one line. You should be actively working on your muscles. Observe your body and keep doing self correction, by paying attention. This it self is meditation. Be as perfect, graceful and steady as possible. Yes, flexibility of body and physical perfection for Yogasana is important. However more important is the state of your mind, Meditative mind. Your flexibility might be excellent but if your mind is not attentive, you are merely doing some physical exercise, not Yoga. With this kind of meditative practice once you achieve sufficient mastery over asanas, and then prefer to move to next stage of Pranayama and Dhyana. If you just do pranayama or dhyana and not do asanas, it won’t help you much and may harm also. Pranayama generates the energy, while asanas distributes it in the entire body. Avoid rushing to higher stage without preparing your body for it. Prepare your body and mind with Asanas, Yama, Niyama first..” He requested Arun sir to perform Shirsasna and then he asked him to do some corrections to demonstrate what meditative Shirsasna is.
I wish that all readers and the yoga sadhakas find this article useful. I have given some hyperlinks for the benefit of more interested readers. Also look at the left side bar, at the top. I have put slideshow of this event and Dr. B.K.S. Iyneger images.
Footnote 1: This reminds me, Sri Sri Ravishankar’s statement from his commentary on Patanjali Yoga Sutra. “You become object of your perception”
Footnote 2: Yes, I can recall, Sri Sri Ravishankar told this point in very convincing way in his commentary on Patanjali Yoga Sutra VCDs. “Even we need regular exercise, practice to build our body at gym for several months/years. So our mind needs regular practice for even longer duration. We can not achieve mind control, over night.”
Footnote 3: Yes, I can recall, Sri Sri Ravishankar explained this word ABHINIVESAAtma does not loose his/her(?) body accidentally. in unique way. It is like… little fear. So that any Atma does not loose his/her body accidentally.
Yes, Since long I was planning to write about my Google Gadgets. Today, I will introduce a simple gadget to you. "Global GSM Connections"
The GSMA represents the interests of the worldwide mobile communications industry. Spanning 219 countries, the GSMA unites nearly 800 of the world’s mobile operators, as well as more than 200 companies in the broader mobile ecosystem, including handset makers, software companies, equipment providers, Internet companies, and media and entertainment organisations. The GSMA is focused on innovating, incubating and creating new opportunities for its membership, all with the end goal of driving the growth of the mobile communications industry. (Source : http://www.gsmworld.com/about-us/index.htm)
I saw dynamically changing numbers about global GSM subscribers at right bottom corner of GSMA website : http://www.gsmworld.com I dig further and located client side script, that updates this number. I reused that script in my new Google gadget and it is ready. Look at the first gadget at your left side bar.
You can all add this gadget by inserting this code in your HTML page.
You can add this gadget to your iGoogle page, Google Desktop and Windows Vista sidebar.
Click here for source code. The logic is straight forward. GSMA has forcasted at the end of this quarter, how much GSM subscribers will be there. So one can determine the rate, per second how many subscribers should be added to achieve this target. We know at the beginning of this quarter (1st Sept, 2009) how many subscriber were there. So with linear formula, we can determine, at present, how many GSM subscriber should be there. Simple. As GSMA mentioned "This number is indicative only, estimated from market data collected by Wireless Intelligence. It is not a precise figure, nor usable for legal purposes."
Have a look to some of my other Google gadgets: Click here
I may write something more about my journey to develop useful, interesting, popular Google gadget. Are you interested to know?
This is the time to celebrate Ganesha festival in our India. There are many mythological stories about the lord Ganesha and some beautiful knowledge about the shuttle aspects about those stories that reveals the secrets of lord Ganesha as binding energy of different sets (GANAAs). Today I will write about lessons from Ganesha for progressing in corporate ladder. How they are applicable to our day to day work lives! Let's see.
The big head stands for wisdom. It contains millions of mental hooks to hand the ideas that come through experience and exposure via the big ears (listening) and narrow eyes (for focusing, focusing and focusing!).
The long nose is to probe around! An excellent way ti gather information for your self-improvement manual! It is flexible, moves 360 degree !
The small mouth is to speak less and to ask questions, sometimes even stupid questions, to get excellent answers which can then be hung on mental hooks in the big head.
The teeth represent hidden assets!
Now, four hands to me represent “delegation,” when you ask or instruct others to help you to get things done! It’s so necessary to achieve goals in life – short, medium and long term – at home and in the office.
The elephant generally walks in a very leisurely manner, waving and wondering, but slowly, slowly and surely reaches the goal. Never in a hurry. An elephant never has a heart attack!
These and many more qualities of the elephant gave it the status of Lord Ganesha in our mythology. Ganesha was not born a god! Though he started to totem he rose to the “ranks” of God, to be worshipped before Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva.
A sub-ordinate who is not a Ganesha is a GobarGanesha – the other end of our elephant! As I look at life, I can be a Ganesha or a GobarGanesha - as a son, a father, a grandfather, a consultant, an employee or employer, and so on. In fact, from day to day we tend to swing like a pendulum from happy Ganesha to Ganesha to GobarGanesha – back and forth, from minute to minute, hour to hour, day to day, and year to year. But it is up to us which mode we are in most of the time.
Excerpts from the book "Simple Ways to Make YOUR BOSS SUCCEED!" By Promod Batra and Vijay Batra.
So this year Ganesha festival, let’s all pray to the almighty for blessings, that we retain the our status as Ganesha most of the time. A happy Ganesha mode. And let’s play our different roles in our lives with 100%.
All the best.
I posted such article earlier Woh Shaam Kuchh Ajib Thi..., that was also a book excerpts. And few more articles about Ganesha. Let me know do you like this article?
This time, I want to share some knowledge about IPSec. IPSec is, a kind of framework that specify how to transfer your data over unsecured network. Internet is omnipresent but, untrusted/unsecured network. Anyone over Internet can see your data, alter your data.
The solutuin is IPSec. VPN uses IPSec protocol. VPN is used to connect to your office/coportate network using Internet. Bank transaction uses IPSec. The connection between two mobile operators' PLMN is over IPSec. Femtocell connects to core network of mobile operator using IPSec.
IPSec How it works?
IPSec provides security by encrypting the data. It may also add authentication header, so if someone alter/temper the data, one can detect it. It implements some proven complex matahemtical algorithms for encryption, authenticaiton and key exchange. Both parties perodically keep changes the sceret keys for robust implementation. IPSec has set of protocols defined in vrious RFC documents. It implement database to store the security association for each tunnel. It has its own challenges with NAT.
For detail information, you can Google it. I found this link very useful:
An Illustraed Guide to IPSec
I prepared a mindmap using FreeMind tool, as a summary. Have a look.
AH Authentication Header
ESP Encapsulating Security Payload
IKE Internet Key Exchange
ISAKMP Internet Security Association Key Management Protocol
NAT Network Address Translation
PLMN Public Land Mobile Network
RFC Request For Comments.
SA Security Association
SADB Security Associations Database
SPD Security Policy Database
SPI Security Parameters Index
So this day, inspired me to write a Gujarati poem with title “ASHAADHSYA PRATHAM DIVASE” (On the first day of month ASHAADH).
You can enjoy it by clicking here.
For non-Gujarati readers, here is the summary:
I want to remind you about Kalidas’s Meghadūta ("Cloud Messenger") associate with today. Those days, lovers were using cloud as messenger. In the block buster bollywood movie named “Maine Pyaar Kiya” a pigeon is used. Today everyone has mobiles, yet, lovers like that fantasy of using cloud as messenger. However, sometimes, the lovers may talk more with silence and is there any need of such communication methods?
See in all languages and cultures around the world, when someone says Shhhhhhhh… people go quiet. Shhhhhhhhhhhh… be silent, be quiet…
And when you really like something you say “waah…!” , wow!… The universal way of appreciating something is waah! In all cultures, languages and traditions around the world, when you like something you say “Waah!”
And so, when you are silent hushed, and you love it, then you have found that quiet corner in yourself… you have experienced Shhhhhhhh…waah!!!
The essence of Shiva, who is quiet, meditative and blissful!
Image: Shiva Temple, KempFort (Now Total shopping mall), MurugeshPaliya, Bangalore, India
How is it?
Venue: Forum shopping mall, Kormanagala, Bangalore, India
Legendary playback singer Manna Dey turned 90 years on 1st May 2009. He promised on his birthday for a live concert. It was organized on 10th May. Due to Internet checking, the show was late so ended also late. Here is the event report. For all the international readers of this blog, I have translated few songs lyrics in English.
First one gentleman came for some formalities. He is the same one who used to participated in Shabd Kavi Samlen. He started with "Aavaj Jaise...Unki AAvaj hi unki pahechan hai..." Short biography of Manna Dey. Kolkutta to Mumbai and now Bangalore. Later on he informed us yes, out of 2 daughters one is settled at abroad so he is with his second daughter at Bangalore. 24th December 2008, the university also awarded him doctor of literature. He is 90 years old young man. We heard about 60 years old man, but this is first time.
Something about this alumni association. It started with just 20 members in 1974 and now about 200 members and they conduct such regular events, like picnic, social service, musical show etc. Some formality about thanking the sponsers. Archna Udupaal, winner of Mega Final at Sa Re Ga Ma TV show. She started in Kannada and sang songs. Starting with
1. Allah Tero Naam
अल्लाह तेरो नाम,
इश्वर तेरो नाम
सबको सन्मति दे भगवान
2. Song from "Madhumati: Aaja re Pardesi
आजा रे परदेशी
मैं तो कब से खड़ी इस पार
की अंखिया थक गई पंथ निहार
आजा रे परदेशी
3. Anari "Voh Chaand Khila"
वोह चाँद खिला
वोह तारे हसे
यह रात अजब मतवाली है
समज ने वाले समज गए है
ना समजे वो अनारी है
Then Mr. K.C. Khurana came. He is traditional anchor for Manna Dey show. He is Manna Dey's friend for last 50 years. He was witty and lively. He talked many things in Urdu and one nice joke. He asked Prof Chopara in a university about chemistry (pronounce chemistry) department. So Mr. Chopara laughed and corrected that not chemistry it
is kemistry. Mr. Khurana replied, "Sorry Mr. Kopara" :)
Finally Manna Dey arrives. We all offered him standing respect. "Good Evning Ladies and Genetlemen" A fully confident voice, addressed us. At the age of 90 also, he was really a young man. Like Jagjit sing and all other singers, he instructed to adjust bass and treble. Then he thanked us for listening to Archna. He declared that first half, he will sing the song as per his choice. He wanted to check how is his throat today!
1. This song written by Madhukar Rajasthani. He wrote songs for Lata, Aasha, Mukesh, Talat etc. many singer. Unfortunately he is no more with us now.
Saavan ki rimzim me thirak thirak naache mayur pankhi
खुले गगन पे झुक गए किसीकी सुरमई पलक
किसीकी लट बिखर गई गिरे घटा जहा तलक
धूलि हवामे धूल गई किसीकी साँस की महक
किसीका प्यार आज बूंद बूंद सा गया छलक......
सावन की रिमझिम में थिरक थिरक नाचे रे पायुर पंखी रे सपने
I think, I heard this song for first time. Yes, the lyrics are good. It
is about peackok dancing in rain season. He asked for tea, that had already arrived. So keyboard player offered him from chair next to him.
2. Meri Bibi Mumtaj Thi.
By the way, later on, his wife came on stage and her name was Sulochana, not Mumtaj :)
सुनसान जमाना का किनारा
प्यार का अन्तिम सहारा
चाँदनी का कफ़न ओढे सो रहा किस्मत का मारा
किस से पुछू मैं भला अब देखा कही मुमताज को
मेरी बीबी मुमताज थी
A husband lost his wife Mumtaj at night time at the bank of Jamuna River.
3. This song is written by Roshan, the grandfather of Ritvik Roshan. It was a fast song
and we all enjoyed with clapping
Ful Gedava Na Maaro
फूल गेदवा ना मारो
4. Lyricist by Sakil, Music by Naushad and it has some influence of Uttar Pradesh (UP) folk music.
Chundariya Kati Jaaye Re
चुन्दरिया कटती जाए रे
उमरिया घटती जाए रे
काम कठिन है, जीवन थोड़ा पगला मन घबराए
The mindis scared now, about difficult task (of self realization) in limited time. The time is going on and so age is reducing. The song with spiritual meaning.
5. Manna Dey acknowledge that yes, in those days, musicians named Shankar JaiKishan gave him the needed break to make some place for him, in the presence of great singers like Mahama Rafi, Mukesh etc. He instructed the Tabala player and informed us that yes, Indian classical music is like that, we have to make sure, all the muscial instruments are in tune. And the lyrics of the songs are also the same
Sura Na Saje, Kya Gavu Main? from movie 'Basant Bahar'
सूर ना सजे क्या गावू मैं?
सूर के बिना जीवन सूना
सूर ना सजे क्या गावू मैं?
A nice melodious song
6. one more song written by Madhukar Rajasthani. Raag Thumari.
Nathali Se Toota Moti...
सजनी नथली से टूटा मोटी रे
कजरारी अंखिया रह गई रोती रे
A description of a crying girl. Her ornaments for nose, is broken and a pearl is missing from it.
7. All time hit song
O Meri Johara Jafi
ओ मेरी जोहरा जफी तुजे मालूम नही
तू अभी तक है हसी और मैं जवान
तुजा पे कुर्बान मेरी जान मेरी जान
This song is between an old couple, who reconfirmed that we both are still young and good looking.
8. Dil Ka Haal Sune Dilvala
दिल का हाल सुने दिलवाला
9. Next he called Archana to sing duet songs along with him. He took the tea cup from the chair. Archana bow down for blessings. He asked her choice then suggested to sing this song.
Yeh Raat Bhigi Bhigi
यह रात भीगी भीगी गुमसुम है चाँदनी
सोने भी नही देता मौसम का यह इशारा
A description of full moon night. A nice melodious song.
10 One more such slow song. Manna Dey politely asked for forgiveness for any mistake as they both have not rehearsal it together. He instructed Archana to start with Aalap
Tum Gagan Ke Chandrma Ho
तुम गगन के चंद्रमा हो
मैं धरा की धूल हूँ
You are like moon of the sky and I am just dust of the earth.
11 A song composed by Chitragupat, and written by PremDhavan
Jodi Hamari Jame Naa Kaise Jaani
जोड़ी हमारी जमे ना कैसे जानी ?
हम तो है अंग्रेजी
तुम लड़की हिन्दुस्तानी
A good fast song, reflecting the feelings of era, when people started traveling to abroad. It explore the possibility of marriage between foriegn returned man with a typical Indian woman.
Now we had 5 to 10 Miniutes break. We had tea, cold drinks and some snack available outside. After the break, the lucky winners were announced from two sponsors. A Kannada movie actor VishnuVardhan came and honored Manna Dey. University facilitate Manna Dey. After all the formality music resumes. Manna Dey took some rest and Archana took over the stage again
12. Ajib Dasta Hai
अजीब दास्ता है येह
कहाँ शुरू कहाँ ख़त्म येह
मंझिले है कौन सी
ना वोह समाज सके ना हम .....
किसी का प्यार लेके तुम नया जहाँ बसाओ गे
Mr. K. C. Khurana cracked a good joke. Once, a dying wife asked her husband about his plan after her death. He replied, "I will become mad." So she felt releaf that thank God, he has no plan to marry again. He told, "Well, a mad man can do anything"
किसी का प्यार लेके तुम नया जहाँ बसाओ गे
This song was about a stange story where no one knows its niether beginning nor end.
Manna Dey came back. He is born Bengali. So off course he wanted to sing few Bengali songs. He has diary that contains about 2500 Bengali songs, with all flavors like Thumari, Dhrupad, Khayal. His wife is from Kerala. So he sang one Malayam song (from "Chemmeen") and two Bengali songs.
16. coming back to Hindi song.
Zindgi...Kaisi Hai Paheli Haye...
झिंदगी कैसी है पहेली हाये
कभी तो हसाए कभी येह रुलाये
A philosophical song, that describe life as a puzzle that make us laugh sometimes and sometime cry.
17. Dr. Harivanshray Bachchan, father of Amitabh and garand father of Abhishek. He wrote a nice epic Madhushala. Madhusala means liquer bar. Manna Dey informed us it is a gems in poetry and if he sang the full Madhushala then it will take one hour. So he recited few selected lines.
18. If Jagjit Sing concert can not end without "Yeh Daulat Bhi Le Lo...", Pankaj Udhas "Chiththi Aai Hai..." and Manhar Udhas "Shaant Zarukhe..." Same way, how Manna Dey concert is complete without his signature song. Yes. He started "Haaye Rama..." Then confessed "Wrong, wrong wrong.." And then that evergreen AALAAP from evergreen song.
Laga Chunari Me Daag from movie "Dil Hi To Hai"
लागा चुनरी में दाग मिटावु कैसे...
चुनरी में दाग छुपावु कैसे?
घर जावु कैसे?
भूल गई सब बचन बिदा के
खो गई मैं ससुराल में आके
This song is about a married girl, who is concern about spot in her dress। She is returning back to visit her parents home and she is worrying about how to inform that dress is spoiled to her father.
मोरी चुनरिया आत्मा मोरी
मेल है मायाजाल
वोह दुनिया मेरे बाबुल का घर
यह रात ससुराल
जाके बाबुल से नजरे मिलावु कैसे ?
घर जावु कैसे?
It has deep spiritual meaning. We all souls are like that girl. We gave so many promises to the almighty before coming to this planet earth. However, here we forgot everything and lost ourselves in this worldly matters. Now, we have to return back as pure, divine, spotless soul.
This song has nice SA RE GA MA classical singing TARANNUM at the end. Manna Dey sang it very skillfully. I fully enjoyed it. It reminded me, that in college days, my friend informed me, that this part is missing even in HMV records/cassettes. Sometimes, we were lucky enough to listen to it, if the full song is played at radio. The audience was keep demanding songs from movie Padosan and Kabuliwala.
19 Next song was from movie "Mera Naam Joker".
E Bhai Jara Dekh Ke Chalo
ऐ भाई जरा देख के चलो
आगे ही नही पीछे भी
दाए ही नही बाये भी
ऊपर ही नही निचे भी
Be careful, while walking and look at front, back, left, right, up and down. This song also has some philosophy. It compare the life with circus show last for three hours. First hour is childhood, second your and third old age. After that nothing. Empty chair, empty tent, nothing is yours, nothing is mine.
20. A patrotic song from "Kabuliwala"
E Mete Pyaare Vatan
ऐ मेरे प्यारे वतन तुज पे दिल कुर्बान
This song has different emotion. A full love, respect and dedication for one's
country. Manna Dey told about this song in an interview: "Bimalda (director Bimal Roy) explained the scene to me. Kabuliwala r eturns home late in the night to his one-room tenement and is nostalgic about his young daughter away in Kabul. I was asked to render it softly, keeping in mind that Kabuliwala wouldn't like to disturb the other occupants of the tenement. Sound recordist Sharma wanted me to sing a bit louder. But Bimalda put his foot down. After the recording, Sharma hugged me and said the song was superb."
Manna Day again asked Archana to accompany him for duet. Last two melodious songs
21. Dil Ki Girah Khol Do Chup Na Betho Koi Git Gao
दिल की गिरह खोल दो
चुप ना बेठो
महेफिल में है अब कौन अजनबी
तुम मेरे पास आवो
22. Aaja Sanam Madhur Chanadani
आजा सनम मधुर चाँदनी में हम
तुम मिले तो वीराने में भी आ जायेगी बहार
And finally like all joyful events, this show also got over. The curtains came down. It was a very pleasant experience to listen to such a Padma Vibhusan singer at his age of 90. Enjoyed. It is a reminder about the times that will never come back — great songs and passionate lyrics
Did you like this event report? If yes, you may also like:
7. 75 years of musical journey of Hindi Cinema
8. Gili Voice of Bangalore Video report on a talent hunt event