5G NR : Part 1

5G is about IoT. In fact in 4G also, IoT related standardization was started with NB-IoT. 

Use Cases

  1. AR/VR
  2. Autonomous transportation (car)
  3. Reliable access to remote health-care
  4. Public safety
  5. Smarter Agriculture
  6. Efficient use of energy/utilities
  7. Autonomous manufacturing
  8. Sustainable cities and infrastructure 
  9. Digitized logistics and retails

Avalanche of traffic volumeMassive connected devicesDiversified use cases
Autonomous car
Connectivity Req
Peak data rate 10Gbps
Min data rate 50 Mbps
High user mobility
Brodband access in dense area
Connectivity Req
Low cost
Low energy
Low packet size
Connectivity Req
Ultra high reliability
Ultra low latency
Use cases
Ultra large volume transfer
Always connected in crowd
Use Cases
Use cases
V2V communication
Driver-less car
Remote surgery
Smart grid
Manufacturing Robot

Market Segments

1. Enhanced Mobile Broadband (eMBB)
2. Massive Machine Type Communications (eMTC)
3. Ultra Reliable and Low Latency Communications (URLLC)

Key KPIs

1. Peak data rate
2. Spectrum efficiency
3. Mobility
4. Latency
5. Connection diversity
6. Network energy efficiency
7. Area traffic capacity

5G standard bodies

1. 3GPP (ITU-R) : (IMT 2020)
2. EU - (METIS - 2020) 
3.1 Japan 2020 and beyond
3.2 Korea 5G Forum
3.3 MOST - China

5G Evolution

1. IMT-Advanced
2. Enhanced IMT-Advanced
3. 5G RAN

Peak data rate
Capacity (/km square)
Number of connected devices / cell
User plane latency
Energy Saving (energy / bit)

5G Standards

3GPP 5G NR Specification
Verizon 5G Specification
Phy channels and modulation38.211 : NRTS V5G.211
Multiplexing and channel coding38.212 : NRTS V5G.212
Physical layer procedures38.213 : NRTS V5G.213

pre 5G standard - https://m.corp.kt.com/eng/html/biz/services/sig.html

3GPP Important Standards

TS 38.211 NR; Physical channels and modulation  
TS 38.212 NR; Multiplexing and channel coding  
TS 38.213 NR; Physical layer procedures for control  
TS 38.214 NR; Physical layer procedures for data  
TS 38.215 NR; Physical layer measurements  
TS 38.300 NR; Overall description; Stage-2  
TS 38.321 NR; Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol specification  
TS 38.322 NR; Radio Link Control (RLC) protocol specification  
TS 38.323 NR; Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP) specification  
TS 38.331 NR; Radio Resource Control (RRC); Protocol specification
TR 38.801 Study on new radio access technology: Radio access architecture and interfaces
TR 38.912 Study on new radio access technology  

TR 38.913 Study on scenarios and requirements for next generation access technologies
TS 23.501 System Architecture for the 5G System


gNB to EPC


gNB to 5G CN
For greenfield deployment

4G and 5G comparison 

Key Functions:
1. Intercell Radio Resource Management
2. Resouce Block Control 
3. Radio Admission Control
4. Connection Mobility Control
5. Dynamic Resource Allocation (Scheduler)
6. Measurement Configuration and Provisioning
X2 InterfaceXn Interface
MMEAMF : Access & Mobility Management F
Key Functions:
1. NAS Security 
2. Idle State Mobility Handling
S-GWUPF : User Plane F
Key Functions:
1. Mobility Anchroing 
2. PDU Handling
P-GWSMF : Session Management F
Key Functions:
1. UE IP Address Allocation 
2. PDU Session Control.


New protocol SDAP over existing PDCP

Deployment Models

Indoor Hotspot30 GHzUpto 1 GHz
Rural700 MHzUpto 20 MHz
High Speed4 GHzUpto 200 MHz
Urban + Massive Connections700 MHz OR
Optionally 2100 MHz

Reference : TR 38.913 Study on scenarios and requirements for next generation access technologies

mmWave frequency is > 30 GHz

5G New Technology

1. mmWave frequency is > 30 GHz
2. Massive MIMO > 8 x 8 MIMO
3. Beam Management
4. LDPC coding (for U-Plane) and Polar coding (for C-Plane) 
5. AS Layer
6. UL Waveform
7. Subframe structure
9. SDN
10. NFV
11. Grant-free UL for IoT


1 frame = 10 subframe
1 subframe's slot = f (n)
1 slot = 14 symbols

So 1 frame's slot = 10 x f(n)
So 1 subframe's symbols = 14 x f(n)
So 1 frame's symbol = 10 x 14 x f(n) = 140 x f(n)

Sub carrier BW (kHz)
Delta F = 2 ** n x 15
12 x Delta F
Slot / subframe
Slot / frame
Symbol / subframe
Symbol / frame
180 kHz
Below 1GHz
1 GHz to 6 GHz
360 kHz
Below 1GHz
1 GHz to 6 GHz
729 kHz
1 GHz to 6 GHz
24 GHz to 52.6 GHz
1.44 MHz
24 GHz to 52.6 GHz
2.88 MHz
5.76 MHz

Slot Format

TDD or FDD depends upon

0 : All 14 Symbols are D
1 : All 14 Symbols are U
2 : X
3 : 13 D + 1 X
4:  12 D + 2 X
5 : 11 D + 3 X

D = Downlink
U = Uplink
X = Flexible

To be continued...


As per Wikipedia Amazon has about 90+ cloud services. Here is list of all major services

90 services 
Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) : IaaS
Amazon Elastic Beanstalk (ESB) : PaaS
Amazon Lambda : FaaS
Amazon Route 53
Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (VPC)
AWS Direct Connect
Amazon Elastic Load Balancing (ELB)
AWS Elastic Network Adapter (ENA)
Content Delivery
Amazon CloudFront : CDN
Contact Center
Amazon Connect
Storage and content delivery
Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3) : Object storage
Amazon Glacier : For archiving data
AWS Storage Gateway : iSCSI
Amazon Elastic Block Store (EBS) : block level storage
AWS Import/Export
Amazon Elastic File System (EFS)
Amazon DynamoDB : NoSQL
Amazon Elastic Cache : Like Memcached and Redis
Amazon Relational Database Service (RDS) : MySQL, Oracle, SQL Server, PostgreSQL
Amazon Redshift : column based
Amazon SimpleDB
AWS Data Pipeline
Amazon Aurora : MySQL
Mobile services 
AWS Mobile Hub : Add/Configure features for mobile apps
Amazon Cognito : Singup / signin
AWS Device Farm : Testing
Amazon Pinpoint : email/SMS/push notofication and tracking customer activity
AWS CloudFormation : IaaC to configure cloud
Amazon Elastic Beanstalk (ESB) : PaaS
AWS OpsWorks : Configure EC2 using Chef
AWS CodeDeploy
AWS System Manager 
Amazon Indentity and Access Management (IAM) : Implicit Service
AWS Directory Service
Amazon CloudWatch
AWS Management Console (AWS Console)
Amazon CloudHSM (Hardware Security Module)
AWS Key Management Service (KMS)
Amazon EC2 Container Service (ECS)
Application services
Amazon API Gateway
Amazon CloudSearch
Amazon DevPay
Amazon Elastic Transcoder (ETS) : S3 hosted videos transcoding for mobile
Amazon Simple Email Service (SES)
Amazon Simple Queue Service (SQS)
Amazon Simple Notification Service (SNS)
Amazon Simple Workflow (SWF)
Amazon Cognito
Amazon AppStream 
Amazon Athena : Serverless query to S3 content
Amazon Elastic MapReduce (EMR) : PaaS
Amazon Machine Learning
Amazon Kinesis : like Apache Kafka
Amazon Elastic Search : elastic search and Kibana
Amazon QuickSight
Amazon Sagemaker : Deep Learning. Build, train and deploy Machine Learning models
Amazon Marketplace Web Service (MWS)
Amazon Mechanical Turk (Mturk)
Amazon Product Advertising API : old names (1) Amazon Associate Web Service (A2S) + (2) Amazon E-commerce Service (ECS)
Amazon Gift Code on Demand (AGCOD) : For corporate customer
AWS Partner Network (APN)
Amazon Lumberyard : Game engine 
Amazon Chime : Colloborative service for video, conf. and IM. 
Amazon Autoscaling
Machine Learning
AWS DeepLens : Computer vision and deep learning
Amazon Comprehand : NLP
Amazon Rekognition Video
Amazon Sagemaker : Deep Learning. Build, train and deploy Machine Learning models
Amazon translate
Amazon Transcribe
Developer tools

AWS Cloud9 : cloud IDE

2017: Looking back with smile

Happy New Year 2018

I saw few post on blog / Facebook about 2017 review. So let me write one for myself also. Just making a list of important events over last year. 

  • Attended few but very effective Satsang with Sri Sri Guruji and HDH Mahant Swmai Maharaj. 
  • Attended Advance Mediation silence course for the 6th time. 
  • Visited pilgrim places. 
  1. Made resolution at Trichi for daily Padma-Saadhana (sequence of Yogaasanaa) to develop navel region like Lord Vishnu (Padma-Naabh).
  2. Made resolution to read more about knowledge sessions and have more devotion in life at Prayaag Raaj Allahabad. 
  3. Wonderful Darshan of Lord Krishna at Udupi, Sakshi Gopal and ShamaLaji. 
  4. Enjoyed trip to Belur, Kolkota and Puri. Also to Mathura, Delhi Akshardham, Banaras (Kashi), Ayodhya and Chhapaiya. 
  • Re-insure my commitment for daily Sudarshan Kriya and fortnightly fast on Ekaadashi. 

Social Media:
  • Opened account at Github and contributed first script about "customized bulk SMS". 
  • Rejuvenate my personal blog with more technical content and much more in pipeline. Stay tuned.  

  • Participated at HackIII event in office and successfully demonstrated home-automation related use cases using Raspberry Pi and Amazon Alexa. 
  • Completed certification course on "Machine Learning" ahead of time. It is the most popular course on coursera by Andrew NG. 
  • Attended several meetups on Kubernets, Machine Learning, Blockchain, Software architecture etc. 
  • Also attended Developer Connect 2017 event by NVIDIA and FOSS 2017 event
  • Study/Refresh security related fundamentals about PKI, ECC, CA etc. 
  • Refresh C++ OOPs fundamentals. 
  • Analyzed few interesting puzzles about Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence on Kaggale

Public Speaking: 

  • Talked for about an hour on "Introduction to Machine Learning" at meetup. Here is the video link
  • Talked about "Importance of Knowledge" at a local Satsang. 

Sanskrit Promotion: 
  • Attended 3-days all India volunteer meet at Udupi in the presence of Honorable speaker of Parliament Ms. Sumitra Mahajan. 
  • Encouraged school students for Sanskrit by solving their doubts and also promoted Sanskrit to general public. 
  • Posted about "Science in Sanskrit" at Facebook and few WhatsApp groups.
  • My efforts to promote Sanskrit are well-recognized by my employer Aricent on Intranet homepage.  

Family and Friends:

  • Visited native place and enjoyed the trip with family / friends. 
  • Few planned meetings with friends are replaced with long phone calls. 


  • Enjoyed videos CDs and my new headphone. 


New hope, confidence to move forward, progress in spiritual front, personal front and professional front in this digital era.